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The influence of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol has not been evaluated. About one-third of a haloperidol dose is excreted in urine, mostly as metabolites. Less than 3% of administered haloperidol is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Haloperidol metabolites are not considered to make a significant contribution to its activity, although for the reduced metabolite of haloperidol, back-conversion to haloperidol cannot be fully ruled out. Even though impairment of renal function is not expected to affect haloperidol elimination to a clinically relevant extent, caution is advised in patients with renal impairment, and especially those with severe impairment, due to the long half-life of haloperidol and its reduced metabolite, and the possibility of accumulation (see section ).

Fluphenazine came into use in 1959. [6] The injectable form is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system . [7] It is available as a generic medication . [1] In the United States the tablets costs between and USD per day for a typical dose. [1] The wholesale cost in the developing world of the long acting form is between and USD per injection as of 2014. [8] It was discontinued in Australia around mid 2017. [9]

In the traditional tests for antipsychotic effect, eg antagonism of stereotypic behaviour induced by dopamine agonists, the chemical groups of antipsychotics mentioned reveal equal but dosage-dependent activity. However, the antistereotypic effects of phenothiazines, butyrophenones, diphenylbutylpiperidines, and benzamides is strongly counteracted by the anticholinergic drug scopolamine, while the antistereotypic effect of thioxanthenes, eg flupentixol is not, or only very slightly, influenced by concomitant treatment with anticholinergics.

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