More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors , androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA.   Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport . Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors.
Having a kettlebell is essentially halfway to having all the exercise equipment you need. From swings to deadlifts, presses, cleans, snatches and goblet squats, grabbing a kettlebell can help you unlock a near-limitless amount of full-body exercises that can string together a monster HIIT workout. If you plan to purchase just one, our advice is to chose a weight according to an exercise that you might find more challenging. You want a KB that's heavy enough to tax you with moves your efficient with but light enough that you can still move it without compromising your form.
$ for a 17-pounder at
After some initial trial and error, I hit upon some key guidelines to help you get the most out of this style of hypertrophy training while minimizing the mind-numbing fatigue it can create: