The heart and blood vessels comprise the two elements of the cardiovascular system that work together in providing nourishment and oxygen to the organs of the body. The activity of these two elements is also coordinated in the body's response to stress. Acute stress — stress that is momentary or short-term such as meeting deadlines, being stuck in traffic or suddenly slamming on the brakes to avoid an accident — causes an increase in heart rate and stronger contractions of the heart muscle, with the stress hormones — adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol — acting as messengers for these effects. In addition, the blood vessels that direct blood to the large muscles and the heart dilate, thereby increasing the amount of blood pumped to these parts of the body and elevating blood pressure. This is also known as the fight or flight response. Once the acute stress episode has passed, the body returns to its normal state.
When you get surgically set up for the peritoneal dialysis procedure, the surgeon inserts a catheter into this membrane and brings the hub of it to the surface. The hub is locked down under rigorous, anti-infective clamps to keep bugs out of your belly. For dialysis, you take the dialysate, much like the solution that is in the machine in hemodialysis, and allow the solution to drain into your abdomen by gravity. That solution sits inside your abdomen and pulls the wastes and fluid from your body by way of the blood that is coursing through the peritoneum. After five or six hours, you hook up to another bag and drain all of the solution out. You simply discard the bag. Most doctors want you to do four to six “exchanges” like this per day to maintain your health.